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考研必背的基础语法知识点,英语简单句

时间:2019-04-17 02:57来源:教育资讯
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  并列句基本概念:

克罗地亚共和国语轻易句、并列句、复合句解析

  语法知识点一

  并列复合句是由四个或三个以上并列而又独自的简便句构成。七个轻易句常由并列连接词连在一齐;但偶尔并非连接词,只在五个简易句之间用壹逗号或总局。

2013-04-07 18:02阅读:7,627

  一.as...as.。。指引的可比级:(一)“as 形容词或副词原级 as 被相比对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像您一样学习努力。

  二、常见的并列句:

越南语简单句、并列句、复合句解析

  (二)在否定句或难点句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

  (一) 用来接二连三三个并列概念的连日词有and , not only…but also…, neither…nor…等,and所连接的光景分句往往意味着先后关系、递进关系。前后分句的时态往往保持1致关系,若首先个分句是祈使句,那么第二个分句用未来时。

粗略句、并列句和复合句

  二.only指导的倒装句型:only 状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

  (二) 表示在两者之间采取2个, 常用的连接词有or,otherwise,or else,either…or…等,前后分句的时态往往保持一致关系,若首先个分句是祈使句,那么第一个分句用以往时。

考点一 简单句

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  唯有任劳任怨、正直,1位在生活中技艺不负众望。 

  (叁) 注明多个概念相互有争辩、相反只怕转载, 常用的延续词有but,yet,still ,however等,前后分句时态一致。

  1. 简轻巧单句只含有几个主谓结构.

  2. 三种简易句:

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  只有那位女人知道哪些解那道题。

  (4) 表达原因, 用连接词for ,前后分句时态1致。

1) 主 谓. He comes at last.

  3.wish引导的虚拟语气:wish 后边的从句,当代表与真情相反的图景,或表示以后不太大概实现的心愿时,其宾语从句的动词方式为: 

  (伍) 表示结果,用再而三词so, 前后分句时态一致。

2) 主 系 表. She is a teacher.

  ⑴代表对当今事态的虚构:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的谢世式用were.   

  主从复合句

The soup tastes nice.

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    笔者愿意知晓那一个难题的答案。(可惜不领悟。) 

  1、概念:

3) 主 谓 宾. They reached the village.

  ⑵代表对过去处境的虚构:从句动词用had 过去分词。 

  主从复合句由多个主句和2个或三个上述的从句构成。主句为句子的本位,从句只用作句子的一个协理成分,不能够独立成为2个句子。从句平日由关联词指导,并由关联词将从句和主句联系在协同。如:While the grandparents love the children, they are strict with them.(外祖父外婆们很爱儿女,同时对他们也严苛要求。) / It seemed as if the meeting would never end.(看起来会议没完没了。) / Hurry up, or (else) you'll be late.(快点, 要不然就来不如了。) / However I cook eggs, the child still refuses to eat them.(不管笔者用什么样办法煮鸭蛋,小孩依然不肯吃。)

4) 主 谓 间宾 直宾.He gave me a pen.

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  小编后悔不应当浪费这么多时光。( 实际桐月经浪费掉了。) 

  2、分类:

5) 主 谓 宾 宾补.I find that book very useful.

  ⑶代表对以后的不可捉摸意愿:谓语动词格局为“would/ should/ could/ might 动词原形”。在那种情景下,主句的主语与从句的主语无法同壹,因为主句的主语所企盼的从句动作能不可能完成,取决于从句主语的态势或希望(非动作名词除此之外) 。 

  从句按其在复合句中的功用,分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、定语从句和状语从句等。(参见以下各样)

考点二 并列句

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能止住。 

  三、各从句在句子中的地方以及用法:

相提并论句:七个或八个以上的简要句,用连词连接起来。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,能够表示请求,日常意味着说话人的难受或遗憾。

  (一) 表语从句:在句子中作连系动词的表语的从句,它位于主句中的系动词之后。

常用的连接词有:

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  小编梦想你安然1些。 

  例如:That is why he did not come to school yesterday. / It is because you are so clever.

  1. 代表顺承关系的:and, not only…but also(不仅….而且….)等。

  四.it方式宾语:和it 作格局主语同样,  大家常用it 来作格局宾语, 把真的的宾语从句放在句末, 那种气象更为出现在带复合宾语的语句中。

  (贰) 宾语从句:在句子中作及物动词或介词的宾语。

She ______ gave us a lot of advice, _______helped us to overcome difficulties.

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他申明他不会屈服。 

  1大旨格局:(主句+)连词 从句主语 从句谓语 ...

Linda tried to become an excellentteacher, _____ at last she succeeded.

  5.The 比较级,the 比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

  二 关于宾语从句连词的选项:

  1. 表示选拔涉及和否定条件的有or(如故,不然)

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。大家越害怕困难,困难就会变得越庞大。

  若从句出自八个陈述句,那么,连词用that,在口语中that能够简单;

Do you want to leave now ____ would yourather set off later?

  语法知识点二

  若从句出自贰个一般疑问句,连词则用if 或whether;

Wear your coat, ____ you’ll catch a cold.

  一. 宾语从句:壹般难点句做宾语,引进if或whether

  若从句出自3个分裂经常疑问句,则连词正是疑问词(如what,who,where,when等)

  1. 意味着转会关系的有but, yet等。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

  例如:They believe that the computer will finally take the place of human beings.(他们相信Computer终将取代人类。) (从句本来正是陈述句)/ I wonder whether I should say something for him to the headmaster. (我不晓得是或不是该为她在校长眼前说点什么。) (从句出自1般问句Shall 伊萨y something for him to the headmaster?) / He asked me where he could get such medicine. (他问小编在哪个地方能搞到那么的药。) (从句出自特殊问句Where can he get such medicine? )

He is young, but he works hard.纵然他年轻,但职业全力。

  二. 原因状语从句:since指引的

  叁宾语从句的时态难点:要是主句是明日时,从句则用今日某一时半刻态,甚至能够用过去时;

  1. 意味着因果关系的有for, so 等。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

  如主句是病故时,从句则附和地动用过去某方今态,境遇客观真理时依旧用未来时。如:I think I will do better in English this term. (小编想本学期作者的乌克兰语仲学得好点。) / The teacher asked the boy if the earth is round. (老师问那么些男孩地球是还是不是圆的。)

My leg hurts so I go to see a doctor. 笔者的腿疼,由此小编去看医务卫生人士。

  三. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

  4 下列结构前边的从句壹般也视作宾语从句看待:

考试场点叁 主从复合句:宾语从句

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

  be sorry / afraid / sure / glad that从句,如:I’m sorry I’m late. (对不起,笔者迟到了。) / I’m afraid he isn’t in at the moment. (可能他此时不在家。)

  1. 宾语从句的指导词

  四. If虚拟条件句

  (3) 状语从句:在复合句中作状语,其地方能够在主句前或主句后。状语从句能够分为时间、地点、原因、目标、结果、相比较、退让、条件等二种。状语从句由从属连接词辅导。

(一)指引 陈述句用 that(在口语和业余文娱体育中平日省略)

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could 动原
跟过去事实相反 had done would/should/might/could have done
跟将来事实相反 should 动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could 动原

  时间状语从句日常由when ,as ,while, after, before, since, as soon as ,since, till (until), while, whenever 等指导。时间状语从句一般位于句首或句尾,尤其注意,时间状语从句不容许行使今后时,而相应用明天时代替。如: When you finish the work, you may go out to play with 萨姆. (你完结职业就能够出去和吉姆一齐玩了。) / I won’t leave until Mum comes back. (母亲回来了自己才会走。)

He tells me (that ) he is going shopping thisSunday.

  伍. 宾语从句:放在介词前面,作介词的宾语。

  地点状语从句平日由 where, wherever等指导。如:Go back where you came from! (何地来还滚到何地去!) / I will never forget to catch the thief who stole my necklace wherever he may be. (小编永世也不会忘记去吸引那么些偷笔者项链的贼,无论她会在哪儿。)

(2) 指导1般难题句用if或whether.

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

  原因状语从句平时由because, since, as等引导,一般位于句首或句尾。如:He went abroad because his father had found a good university for him. (他出国了,因为他父亲给他找了1所好大学。)

She asked me if whether she could join us.(whether…or not)

  6.状语从句轻易(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从轻巧采纳分词作者状语。例句:

  指标状语从句日常由so that..., so...hat..., in order that... 等指导,往往放在句尾,从句中不以为奇含有can / could / may / might等千姿百态动词。如:He got up earlier so that he could catch the first train. (他起身更早为的是蒙受第一班车。)

(3) 教导特殊疑问句,要用原来的奇怪疑问词。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

  结果状语从句普通由 so that..., so...that... 等指点,放在句尾。结果状语从句1般代表已经发生的业务,故多为过去时态。如:He lost so many bikes that he decided never to buy a new one. (他丢了那么多辆自行车,他操纵再也不买

She asked them what they were doing.

  语法知识点三

新车了。)

  1. 宾语从句的语序 :要用陈述句语序。

  ①.并列句:由and, or , but连接的八个句子成为并列句。

  相比较状语从句普通由as, than, as (so)...as等引导,一般大约从句的谓语部分,只剩下名词或代词(用主格或宾格均可)。如:Jane is much taller than I/me. (Jane比小编高多了。) / I don’t have as many books as you (do). (作者书未有你多)

I want to know when the train left.

  贰.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 sb 表示“前者情状适用于子孙后代”。例句:

  妥协状语从句普通由though (although), as, even if( even though), however, whatever等指引。如:伊夫n if you pay the debt(债务) for me, I will not thank you because it has nothing to do with me. (尽管你替作者还了债笔者也不会感激你,因为它与自己毫无关系。) / He wears a T-shirt though it is very cold. (他穿了一件羽绒服衫,固然天非常的冷。)

  1. 宾语从句的时态

  You are a student, so am I。

  条件状语从句平日由if, unless, as lon瓦斯等引导,条件状语从句一般位于句首或句尾,特别注意,时间状语从句不容许选用以后时,而应当用后天时代替。You will certainly fail in the coming final exams unless you work much harder. (即以往到的期末考试你明确考不比格,除非您更用心。) / If it doesn’ t rain tomorrow, we shall go hiking. (假诺前几日不降水我们就要去徒步旅行。)

(1)主句是相似今后时,壹般现在时或祈使句,宾语从句可遵照实际要求选取各类时态。

  三.定语从句 who指引的限定性定从。例句:

  [注意] 一、because与so;(al)though与but;if与so不可能同在三个句子中成对现身。

He tells us that he has been able to lookafter himself.

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教咱们拉脱维亚语的老大女孩啊?

  二、时间、条件、原因,妥胁状语从句放在句首时须求用逗号与主句隔断。

(二) 主句是过去时态,宾语从句应利用过去时的附和时态。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

  (四) 定语从句:在复合句中作定语用修饰句子中某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。

They said that they had already finished thework.

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

  一 定语从句的职位:放在名词或代词的前边。如:The man who has an umbrella in his hand is my uncle. (手上抓了壹把雨伞的人是自身的二叔。)

(叁) 假使宾语从句叙述的是客观事实、真理、自然现象等,不管主句用什么样时态,从句都用一般今后时。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

  二语法术语的改观:被修饰的名词或代词称为先行词;引导定语从句的连日词称为关系词,在那之中that、which、who称为涉嫌代词,where、when、how称为关系副词。

He said that light travels faster than sound.

  陆.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since 的差别之处在于,now that 引出的总得是1个新面世的真相或景况,假诺仍旧照旧,和过去对照并不曾变化,则毫不 now that 辅导。

  3 关系代词或关系副词的意义:

  1. 练习

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把具有资料都准备好了,大家应有立刻开端那项新的劳作。

  关系代词who、whom 和whose指人,分别在从句中作主语、宾语和定语。which指物that多指物, 有时也指人,它们在从句中能够作主语或宾语。定语从句中提到代词作者从句宾语时得以大致。This is the thief (that/who/whom) we have been looking for these days. (那么些正是大家多年来直接在找的小偷。) / Please find a room which is big enough for all of us to live in. (请找壹间丰裕大能住下大家凡事的房间。)

壹)Sheasked me, “威尔 you go to the cinema tomorrow?” (改为含宾语从句的复合句)

  7. 缘由状从:for的用法。由because 指点的从句如若身处句末,且前边有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for 来顶替。但假设不是认证直接原因,而是各样场地再说预计,就只能用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今日没来,因为他害病了。

  关系副词when或where指引定语从句时,它们在从句中分别作时间状语和地址状语。如:This is the room where they had a quarrel a week ago. (那是三个星期前他们吵架的屋子。) / I can never forget the day when I first saw you. (小编永久不会忘记第三遍见到你的日子。)

She asked me______ I ______ go to the cinema the next day.

  八. 缘由状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

  四限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句在句中不能够差不多,不然主句意思就不完整。非限制性定语从句和主句之间往往用逗号分开,那种从句是壹种附加表明,即使从句子中节省,也不致于影响主句的情趣。如:She spent the whole evening talking about her latest book, which none of us had heard of. (她二个夜晚都在座谈她方今的书,大家一位都不曾耳闻过那本书。)

2) Howlovely the dog is! Can you tell me _____?

  九. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

  [注解]

A. where did you get it B.where will you get it C. where you got it

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

  1、关系代词只好用that的情形:

3) --- Can you tell me _____ your parents at home?

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 独资化的亮点在于能有助于相互竞争。

  当先行词是指事物的动荡代词(all, anything等),或先期词部分含有最高端,或带有序数词时,不能用别的的关系代词,只好用that. 如:All that Lily told me seems untrue. (Lily告诉笔者的话就像不真正。) / Can you give me anything that has no sugar inside? (能或不能够给作者点里面未有糖的东西?) / This is the first two-story bus that runs in our city. (那是第1辆运维于小编市的双层公共交通车。)

--- I often wash clothes and sweepthe floor.

  10. 不定式:不定式做指标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

  二、关系代词在从句中作主语时壹般用who(指人)、that(指物),而不用that指人或用which指物。

A. how will you help B. how you help C. how will you help D. how do you help

  作品来源:跨考教育[微博]

  如:Do you know the woman who is weeping in the corner? (你认识那么些在角落里哭泣的巾帼呢?) / Do not tell me any words that have nothing to do with me. (跟小编无关的话,请贰个字也并非说。)

4) When I was young, my grandfather told me that the sun ______ (rise) inthe east.

  三、关系代词作者从句的宾语时,常用which或whom,较少使用that或who,而且,关系代词经常省略。

考试场点4 状语从句

  如:汤姆’s father was the first parent whom our teacher talked to. (汤姆的阿爹是大家教育工作者先是个出口的人。)

一、状语从句在复合句中作状语,修饰主句中的动词、形容词、副词等。

  肆、当提到代词紧跟在介词前边时,必须用which或whom,而当介词移到句尾时,则又足以运用that或who.

一.地方状语从句

  如:This is the room in which Miss Li once lived. (= This is the room Miss Li once lived in.) (那是李小姐曾经居住过的房间。)

地方状语从句平日由 where 教导。

  (5) 主语从句:在句子中充当句子主语的从句叫主语从句。位于谓语动词在此之前。平常由that,whether以及难题连词指导。一般景色下,常用it替代主语从句,而将主语从句移到句尾。如:When we should start is still a question. (大家该在怎么着时候初始依旧个难题啊。)

Put allthe things _____they were.

  直接引语和直接引语

A. whereB. when C. whose D. which

  一、直接引语和直接引语:在陈述句中,直接引用说话人原先的说话,称为直接引语。在挥洒时,直接引语用引号。用本身的词语来转述表明原来讲话人说的剧情,称为直接引语。

贰.时刻状语从句(主句用以后时,从句用一般今后时)

  二、直接引语更改为直接引语:

日子状语从句的教导词有when, before, after, until, assoon as, since, while, as 等

  ①、直接引语借使是陈述句,变为直接引语时应小心以下各点:

She wascooking when someone knock at the door.

  一不用引号,而用一连词that,但偶尔可回顾。

What willyou do after you finished your homework?

  贰人称做相应改换;

三.标准化状语从句

  三主句里的动词就算是过去时,直接引语中的时态壹般应作相应退换: 一般现在时变1般过去时;壹般以后时变过去以往时;未来举行时变过去进行时;今后完毕时改为过去实现时;1般过去时成为过去完成时;但1般过去时如与二个现实的离世时间连用,则时态不改变。

在尺度状语从句中,常用的指点词有if, unless等。

  如:He says,"I am not from the USA.”→He says that he is not from the USA.

If itdosen’t rain, I” ll go fishing.

  Mr Smith said to his girl friend,“ I haven’ t seen you for a long time.”

They willhave a picnic unless it rains next Sunday.

编辑:教育资讯 本文来源:考研必背的基础语法知识点,英语简单句

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